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1. Planning Policy Framework verbs

The list below suggests verbs to use and those to avoid when writing strategies for the PPF. A verb is not automatically suitable because it is included in this list.

Verbs must be chosen carefully to achieve the intended outcome.

Encouraging verbs

  • Allow: to grant permission to or for
  • Assist:  to give support, help or aid
  • Enable: to make possible or easy
  • Enhance:  to raise to a higher degree, intensify or magnify
  • Encourage: tostimulate by assistance; approval
  • Facilitate: to make easier or less difficult
  • Improve:  to bring into a more desirable or excellent condition
  • Promote:  to further the growth, development, progress of; encourage
  • Prioritise:  to give priority to
  • Strengthen: to make stronger
  • Support:  to uphold by aid; advocacy or endorsement
  • Upgrade:  to assign to a higher status; to improve

Protective verbs

  • Conserve:  to keep in a safe or sound state; preserve from loss, decay, waste or injury
  • Maintain:  to keep in existence or continuance; preserve; retain; to keep in due condition, operation or force.
  • Preserve:  to keep alive or in existence; make lasting; to keep safe from harm or injury
  • Protect:  to cover or shield from injury or danger
  • Respect:  to treat with consideration; relate or have reference to
  • Retain:  to keep possession of; to continue to use, practise; to hold in place or position

Conclusive verbs

  • Avoid:  keep away from or keep clear of
  • Ensure: tomake sure or certain to occur
  • Prevent:  to keep from occurring; hinder

Discouraging verbs

  • Limit: to confine or keep within limits; to restrict
  • Minimise: to reduce to the smallest possible amount or degree
  • Reduce: to bring down to a smaller extent, size, amount; to lower in degree, intensity
  • Restrict: to confine or keep within limits as of space, action, choice or quantity
  • Discourage: to express disapproval of; to dissuade from; to obstruct by opposition

Neutral verbs

(could encourage or discourage depending on context)

  • Accommodate: to find or provide space for (something); to make suitable or consistent
  • Allocate: to set apart for a particular purpose; assign or allot
  • Concentrate: to bring or draw to a common centre or point of union; cause to come close together
  • Connect: to join or unite; link
  • Consolidate: to unite or combine; to strengthen
  • Coordinate: to place or arrange in due order or proper relative position; to combine in harmonious relation or action
  • Create: to bring into being; cause to exist; produce.
  • Define: to determine or fix the boundaries or extent of; to make clear the outline or form of; to explain the nature or essential qualities of
  • Deliver: to give forth or produce
  • Demonstrate: to make evident by arguments or reasoning; prove
  • Design: a plan to be executed or constructed; a plan; a project; a scheme
  • Develop: to bring to a more advanced or effective state; to cause to grow or expand
  • Direct: to regulate the course of; conduct; manage; control; to point or aim towards a place or an object
  • Establish: to set up or bring about; to settle or install in a position
  • Focus: (to make) a central point of attraction, attention or activity; to concentrate
  • Implement: to put (a plan, proposal etc.) into effect
  • Increase: to make greater in any respect; augment; add to
  • Locate: to set, fix or establish in a place, situation or locality
  • Manage: to take charge or care of; to handle, direct, govern or control in action or use
  • Offset: to balance by something else as an equivalent; to compensate for
  • Plan: a scheme of action or procedure; a design or scheme or arrangement
  • Provide: to furnish or supply
  • Reinforce: to strengthen; make more forcible or effective
  • Reserve: to keep back or save for future use, disposal, treatment; to retain or secure by express stipulation
  • Restore: to bring back to a former, original or normal condition
  • Specify: to mention or name specifically or definitively; to give a specific character to
  • Transition: to move from one state, position or stage to another
  • Undertake: to warrant or guarantee; to take in charge

Verbs to avoid

(provide little/no direction)

  • Consider: to think carefully; to view attentively or scrutinise
  • Recognise: to perceive as existing or true; to acknowledge formally as existing
  • Acknowledge: to admit to be real or true; to indicate appreciation or gratitude for; to certify the receipt of

(controls cannot be included in policy)

  • Require: to place under an obligation or necessity

2. Example Municipal Planning Strategy

3. Place-based policy checklist

4. Local policy location list

Clause PPF heading Policy content
11.01 Victoria  
11.01-1 Settlement Settlement within Metropolitan Melbourne and the eight regional growth plan areas.
Settlement planning for cities and townships.
Metropolitan Melbourne green wedges.
11.02 Managing growth  
11.02-1 Supply of urban land The provision of land (residential, commercial, industrial etc.) and infrastructure to support development and meet forecast demand.
11.02-2 Structure planning Precinct Structure Plans for growth areas.
11.02-3 Sequencing of development Managing development in growth areas so services are available early for new communities.
11.03 Planning for places  
11.03-1 Activity centres Networks of activity centres.
Development of activity centres (such as those based on strategic framework plans).
11.03-2 Growth areas Location of urban growth.
Growth Area Framework Plans.
11.03-3Peri-urban areasManagement of growth in peri-urban areas.
Protecting valued qualities including environmental, cultural or economic.
11.03-4Coastal settlementPlanning for sustainable coastal development through:
  • settlement boundaries to avoid linear sprawl   and protect non-urban breaks
  • protecting environmental values
11.03-5Distinctive areas and landscapesIdentified and declared distinctive areas. Includes areas with Localised Planning Statements (such as for the Bellarine Peninsula or Yarra Ranges).
Managing impacts along the Great Ocean Road.
11.03-6Regional and local placesPlace-based policies that relate to a place that is not covered by clauses 11.01, 11.02 or 11.03-1 to 11.03-5 – such as a township, an urban renewal precinct or a strategic redevelopment area.
This clause can only be used for policies that meet all of the criteria outlined in the Place-based policy checklist.
12.01-1Protection of biodiversityIdentifying and protecting areas of biodiversity including important areas of biodiversity.
Providing links between areas of biodiversity.
Planting and tree cover to increase habitat.
12.01-2Native vegetation managementRemoval of native vegetation resulting in no net loss to biodiversity. For more general vegetation management see 12.01-1 Protection of biodiversity.
12.02Marine and coastal environment 
12.02-1Protection of the marine and coastal environmentProtecting natural and environmental values of coastal areas.
Managing marine development and infrastructure.
Protecting cultural heritage.
Coastal acid and sulfate soils.
12.02-2Marine and coastal Crown land 
12.03Water bodies and wetlands 
12.03-1River corridors, waterways, lakes and wetlandsWater bodies of all kinds except marine and bay environments.
Dams – where the principal concern is interfering with the flow of a waterway.
The Yarra River.
12.04Alpine areas 
12.04-1Sustainable development in alpine areas 
12.05Significant environments and landscapes 
12.05-1Environmentally sensitive areasProtection of environmentally sensitive areas with significant recreational value.
12.05-2LandscapesSignificant landscapes and open spaces that are not distinctive landscapes identified at Clause 11.03-5.
13.01Climate change impacts 
13.01-1Natural hazards and climate changeClimate change – General matters.
Natural hazards – General considerations not otherwise addressed in clauses 13.02, 13.03 and 13.04.
13.01-2Coastal inundation and erosionCoastal impacts of climate change.
River and coastal development susceptible to inundation and erosion.
13.02-1Bushfire planningBushfire planning for land affected by the Bushfire Management Overlay or included in a Bushfire Prone Area.
13.03-1Floodplain managementManaging floodplains.
Mitigation of negative impacts of flooding including the protection of life and property.
Dams – where the principal concern is reducing flooding impacts.
13.04Soil degradation 
13.04-1Contaminated and potentially contaminated land 
13.04-2Erosion and landslipLand degradation processes – management of use and development in areas prone to landslip, erosion etc.
Dams – as relevant to erosion or landslip.
13.05-1Noise abatementUsing building design, urban design and land separation techniques to manage noise effects on sensitive land uses.
13.06Air quality 
13.06-1Air quality managementIntegration of land use and transport to improve air quality through reduced emissions.
Separating uses that generate emissions and more sensitive uses.
13.07Amenity, human health and safety 
13.07-1Land use compatibilityAmenity, human health and safety impact management.
Off-site impacts from commercial, industrial and other uses.
Conflicts between uses within a zone (e.g. non-residential uses in residential zones or caretaker’s residences in industrial areas.
Interface impacts between different zones (e.g. dwellings that abut an industrial zone.
Licensed premises – managing the amenity impacts they generate.
Sexually explicit entertainment venues – managing the amenity impacts they generate.
13.07-2Major hazard facilitiesMinimising the potential risk to humans and property from major hazard facilities.
Providing for the ongoing viability of major hazard facilities.
13.07-3Live Music 
14.01-1Protection of agricultural landProtection of productive agricultural land.
Criteria for the assessment of non-agricultural uses in farming zones.
Housing in agricultural zones: excisions, development, subdivisions (excludes rural residential development).
14.01-2Sustainable agricultural land useAnimal husbandry and other animal industries including animal keeping, training, breeding.
Sustainable management of ongoing agricultural land use.
14.01-3Forestry and timber production 
14.02-1Catchment planning and management

Protecting and restoring the natural function of catchments.
Managing impacts on downstream water quality including from development.

14.02-2Water qualityProtecting surface and ground water quality.
Managing land use and development to protect impacts on downstream water quality or flow.
14.02-3Protection of declared irrigation districts 
14.03Earth and energy resources 
14.03-1Resource exploration and extraction 
15.01Built environment 
15.01-1Urban designUrban design.
Signs – placement, appearance and treatment of different types of signs (except signs along a transport route that forms part of the transport system such as Eastlink or the Metropolitan Ring Road, which belong under Clause 18.02-3 Road system).
15.01-2Building designBuilding design including: residential, commercial and industrial.


Subdivision design

  • Neighbourhood design
  • Subdivision design – particularly those   covered by Clause 56
15.01-4Healthy neighbourhoodsDesigning a physical environment that supports:
  • community interaction
  • physical activity
15.01-5Neighbourhood character 
15.01-6Design for rural areasDesign in rural areas including:
  • approaches to townships
  • along tourist routes
  • ridgelines and hilltops
This policy relates to design for more general rural areas. For significant landscapes or other sensitive natural areas see Clause 11.03-5 Distinctive areas and landscapes or Clause 12.05 Significant environments and landscapes.
15.02Sustainable Development 
15.02-1Energy and resource efficiencyEnergy use reduction – through building design such as orientation, passive heating and cooling, natural ventilation.
Vegetation retention and planting as part of development and subdivision to help cool the environment and help combat climate change.
15.03-1Heritage conservationManaging development of heritage places.
Excludes statements of significance or detailed, place-specific design guidelines. These are to be incorporated into the schedule to the Heritage Overlay (see PPN 01- Applying the Heritage Overlay for more information).
15.03-2Aboriginal cultural heritage 
16.01Residential development 
16.01-1Housing supply

Facilitating well-located, integrated and diverse housing that meets community needs.
Increasing diversity in the types and configuration of housing to meet changing household needs.
Increasing housing in established urban areas and reducing new dwellings in greenfield, fringe and dispersed development areas.
Directing higher density residential development to areas well serviced by public transport, employment, commercial and community facilities.
Housing supply – excludes:

  • Amenity, human health and safety impacts and interface issues – see Clause 13.07-1 Land use compatibility
  • housing affordability – see Clause 16.01-2.
16.01-2Housing affordabilitySupporting housing affordability through:
  • increasing housing choice
  • using design to minimise environmental impacts and reduce costs
  • facilitating the provision of affordable housing for very low to moderate income households
16.01-3Rural residential developmentHousing in areas where rural residential development is expected or preferred – excludes dwellings and dwelling lot excisions in the Farming Zone – see Clause 14.01-1 Protection of agricultural land.
16.01-4Community care accommodationFacilitating the confidential establishment of community care facilities.
16.01-5Residential aged care facilitiesFacilitating the development of residential aged care facilities that:
  • are integrated with services and the community
  • cater to a range of needs
  • are designed to respond to site and context
17.01-1Diversified economyFacilitating growth in emerging employment sectors.
Protecting existing employment areas and planning for new ones.
Growing and diversifying rural economies.
17.01-2Innovation and researchFacilitating growth in the knowledge economy.
Supporting the development of business clusters.
Innovation and research precinct development (e.g. the Latrobe employment cluster).
17.02-1BusinessMeeting the community’s need for retail, entertainment, office and other commercial services.
17.02-2Out-of-centre developmentManaging out-of-centre development to not undermine existing centres and provide a net community benefit.
17.03-1Industrial land supplyAllocating sufficient land for all industrial needs.
17.03-2Sustainable industry

Protecting the viability of industries through buffer distances, their location and other measures.

17.03-3State significant industrial landProtecting industrial land of state significance to allow for future growth.
17.04-1Facilitating tourismExcludes what is captured under Clause 17.04-2 Coastal and maritime tourism and recreation.
17.04-2Coastal and maritime tourism and recreation 
18.01Land use and transport 
18.01-1Land use and transport integrationIntegrating land use and transport to develop a transport system that facilitates access to social, cultural, and economic activities.
18.01-2Transport systemLocation and design of new transport routes for all modes.
Locating and designing movement networks to balance the needs of different users of the transport system.
18.01-3Sustainable and safe transportDesigning a safe transport system that promotes health and wellbeing and is sustainable.
18.02Movement networks 



Encouraging efficient and safe walking networks that link with the transport system.
Improving walking infrastructure.
18.02-2CyclingEncouraging efficient and safe bicycle networks that link with the transport system.
Protecting and improving Strategic Cycling Corridors.
Improving cycling infrastructure.
18.02-3Public TransportIntegrating major transport projects with public transport infrastructure.
Protecting and developing the Principal Public Transport Network and Regional Rail.
Integrating land use and development with public transport infrastructure.
18.02-4RoadsDesign of road networks and declared roads and freeways.
Design for safe movement of people and goods.
Protecting and development of the Principal Road Network.
Allocating land for car parking based on demand taking into account all modes of transport.
Efficient provision and use of car parking facilities.
Design and location of car parking facilities.
18.02-5FreightProtecting and developing the Principal Freight Network.
Improving freight and logistics system and precincts.
18.02-7Airports and airfields 
19.01-1Energy supplyFacilitating development of energy supply infrastructure including at a local level to help diversify local economies.
Supporting the transition to a low-carbon economy.
19.01-2Renewable energyRenewable energy facilities on a commercial scale.
19.01-3Pipeline infrastructurePipeline infrastructure provision and protection.
19.02Community infrastructure 
19.02-1Health facilitiesIncludes, hospitals, medical centres, health and health-related facilities and the like.
19.02-2Education facilitiesIncludes childcare, early learning centres, kindergartens and the like.
19.02-3Cultural facilitiesIncreasing access to arts, recreation and other cultural facilities.
19.02-4Social and cultural infrastructureProviding a fairer distribution of and access to social and cultural infrastructure, including community facilities.
19.02-5Emergency servicesEmergency service infrastructure location.
19.02-6Open spacePublic open space areas – distribution and/or management.
19.03Development infrastructure 
19.03-1Development and infrastructure contributions plansDevelopment Contribution Plans.
Infrastructure Contribution Plans.
19.03-2Infrastructure design and provisionSubdivision – providing an integrated approach to the planning and engineering design of new subdivisions.
Engineering design for subdivisions - Infrastructure Design Manual.
19.03-3Integrated water managementWater supply, treatment and re-use including alternative water sources such as rainwater collection.
Dams – where the principal concern is more general water supply.
Stormwater – quality, management and treatment.
Water sensitive urban design (WSUD).
19.03-4TelecommunicationsTelecommunication facilities and infrastructure.
19.03-5Waste and resource recoveryWaste and resource recovery – infrastructure provision.
Waste reduction.
Waste facilities – appropriate provision – including domestic, commercial
and industrial.


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Page last updated: 09/06/23